by Duane MellorAnd Aston University And Adrian BrownAnd UCL
Until recently, type 2 diabetes was primarily managed by controlling risk factors — such as high blood pressure, cholesterol levels and blood sugar (glucose) — usually by prescribing medications. But this approach does not address the underlying causes of type 2 diabetes – such as problems with the hormone insulin that no longer effectively controls blood sugar. While taking medications can help manage blood sugar levels, they will not help eliminate the underlying biological causes of type 2 diabetes.
A growing body of research shows that losing weight, either through surgery or dietIt can help treat some of the underlying causes of type 2 diabetes. It does this by helping the body control blood sugar levels. This is as important as controlling blood sugar by improving the way insulin is made and working and is the key to stopping type 2 diabetes.
Most of this body of research to date has looked at the use of Meal replacement shakes To help people with type 2 diabetes, which is why a doctor may prescribe this approach. But recently, researchers have begun to investigate other diets – such as Low carb diets In achieving forgiveness. Although research in this area is still emerging, study results so far have shown that a low-carb diet is promising.
To better understand the diets that are best at helping people achieve remission from type 2 diabetes, we have last review I looked at more than 90 papers describing the effects of different diets on type 2 diabetes. We found that although the best-quality research tends to focus on meal replacement shakes used in clinical trials, other approaches (such as diets) have also been shown to Low carb) works well.
Our review found it Alternative diets Helped about one in three people successfully achieve remission, while Low carb diets She was able to help about one in five people to achieve remission. People who lost weight using both regimens were able to stay in remission for up to two years if they continued to lose weight.
Low calorie and Mediterranean diet She was also able to help people achieve remission – but at much lower rates. Only about 5% of people on a low-calorie diet remained in remission after one year, while only 15% of people on a Mediterranean diet remained in remission after a year.
One of the big challenges we faced when writing our review was defining what “remission” is. It was important to know how to identify them so that we could understand which diets work best in helping people achieve remission.
The reason this is difficult is because the definition varies between different expert groups and research studies. Most define remission as a decrease in blood sugar levels below the range to Diagnosis of diabetes – But some definitions state that this should be done without the use of drugs, while others do not. Other definitions reduce weight (especially Fat around the middle area) must be lost to achieve remission.
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Another challenge we faced when determining remission was that some reports suggest Low carb diets It can normalize blood sugar levels even without losing weight. This happens because when we eat carbohydrates, they are broken down into sugars that cause blood sugar levels to rise. A low-carb diet means lower blood sugar in the bloodstream, which leads to better glycemic control.
For this reason, we initially defined remission using the definition used by each study. Next, we compared the number of people whose blood sugar levels returned to normal without drugs for at least six months — which most consider true remission.
dilution v remission
While low-carb diets help people achieve calm, there is concern that blood sugar levels may rise again once more carbohydrates are eaten. This is why we suggest in our review that instead of calling this calm, perhaps it should be called “diabetes relief,” since type 2 diabetes still exists – but the negative effects are well managed. We believe that remission can only be achieved if fat is lost from all parts of the organs. This allows the insulin to be made and used effectively again.
But since carbohydrates are also a major source of energy in our diet, eating less of them often results in the consumption of fewer calories – which usually leads to Weight loss. So if someone is able to maintain a low-carb diet long-term, it will not only reduce blood sugar levels and the risk of diabetes complications, but may also bring about remission.
Type 2 diabetes: Short-term, low-carb diet linked to sedation — but only if you lose weight
Regardless, the evidence we looked at in our review showed that there are many ways a person can significantly improve their blood sugar levels through diet – and this can lead to remission in many cases. The main thing that we found with each type of diet is that a minimum of 10-15 kg of body weight must be lost to achieve calm.
However, although weight loss appears to be the best indicator of success, it assumes a loss of fat from the pancreas and liver. It will be important for future studies to compare how these diets work for different ethnic groups, as type 2 diabetes can occur. lower body weights In different ethnic groups, who may have less weight to lose.
Not everyone may be able to achieve remission, but people who are younger (under 50), male, who have had type 2 diabetes for less than six years and lose more weight are more likely to achieve success. This may be because these people are able to reverse the causes of their diabetes, restoring more of the pancreas’ ability to produce insulin and the liver’s ability to use it. But this does not mean that others will not succeed if they improve their diet and lifestyle and lose weight.
Whether or not a person achieves remission, lowering blood sugar levels is important in managing the negative effects of type 2 diabetes and reducing the risk of complications. But when it comes to choosing a diet, the most important thing is to choose one that works for you – one that you are likely to stick to in the long run.
Duane Mellor, chair of the Department of Evidence-Based Medicine and Nutrition, Aston School of Medicine, Aston University And Adrian BrownResearch fellow and lecturer, UCL
This article has been republished from Conversation Under Creative Commons License. Read the original article.
Top image: Low-carb diets have also been shown to help people achieve calmness. Elena Shashkina / Shutterstock