1. Hemp and hemp
It is almost universally grown due to its easy adaptability, Hemp Plants contain over a hundred specific compounds called hemp. However, it is not the only type of Hemp sex. There is, too Hemp indicaIt is a type with a low concentration of the psychoactive substance THC (tetrahydrocannabinol), and Hemp ruderalis, With no psychoactive properties.
Natural phytocannabinoids. They are compounds derived from plants. Endocannabinoids are also natural compounds, but they are not derived from plants. Both act on the endocannabinoid system, and produce physiological stimuli. Aside from THC, the other primary cannabinoid extracted from cannabis is cannabidiol (CBD), which has no psychoactive effects. They both act on the endocannabinoid system; Therefore, they have many medicinal uses.
However Hemp It is a plant with long known and recorded therapeutic effects, except that it is only now, with the recent discovery of the cannabinoid receptor and the endocannabinoid system, that it is being prescribed more, mainly to treat pain. The endocannabinoid system is complex and involves many pharmacological effects. Some of these effects are cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, noncannabinoid receptors such as vanilloid (TRPV1) and serotonergic receptors (5-HT). This complication results in a large number of pharmacological effects.
CBD works in myriad ways. There are indications of its usefulness in the central nervous system as a sedative, as well as for controlling convulsions, seizures and anxiety. As an appetite stimulant. Bronchodilator and as a treatment for glaucoma. It even works on inflammatory responses, the immune system, and the thermoregulatory system.
2. Interference: Prohibition
The first lawsuit to ban the sale and use of cannabis in the West was filed in Brazil in 1830, and was brought by the Rio de Janeiro City Council. According to the council, at the time several studies demonstrated effects such as aggressive behavior, delusions, and uncontrolled sexual impulses after using them. The lawsuit also classified users as compulsive drug addicts, placing marijuana in the opioid group. From 1934 onwards, they were punished. But as Mark Thornton notes,
The intervention, like the moderation organizations, was not able to demonstrate total abstinence in the community. After each failure, moderation groups will advocate tougher policies.
For Rothbard, the embargo is a type of intervention that he defined as “tripartite interference,” whereby the state interferes with the trade that people want to do with one another. The state enforces or prohibits trade in goods and services between companies and consumers. Rothbard points out that the triple intervention can be divided into “price control” and “product control.”
Guilherme Resende Oliveira notes this
[m]Most illicit drug-related deaths stem from the illegal nature of the market (especially associated with violence and lower quality) rather than from the use per se. For example, hemp does not kill in an overdose, but the impurities in Paraguayan Pressed Cannabis do more harm to health than natural marijuana. Before allocating more resources to fight supply, the government should carefully evaluate the results (evidence-based) and target resources on demand.
In the 1950s, marijuana users began to be classified as “troublemakers”, “rioters”, “thugs” and “outlaws”, in order to connect them to lower social groups. In the 1960s, with the “Cultural Revolution”, usage shifted to the middle class. These users became associated with the youth rebellion, which had always been linked to criminalization. In this scenario, the use was not related to the psycho-pharmacological properties of the plant.
Drug ban has little effect on demand across the board as it does not interfere with consumer choice. Hence, its result is an increase in price, which also indirectly increases crime rates because users may commit theft to keep their deputy or replace it with more dangerous items.
It is necessary to point out that intervention by controlling the product will change price levels: restricting some products will lead to their scarcity and raise their prices. This scenario makes illegal activities financially viable.
3. The importance of hemp in veterinary medicine
There is still a dearth of studies on the clinical use of cannabis in veterinary medicine once the available data are limited to experimental results in preclinical studies of human medicine. It is imperative to develop research on many species, not just laboratory guinea pigs. These reviews are essential to understanding the negative effects and responses of cannabinoids.
Cancer is often diagnosed in animals late, which makes tumor staging more difficult and contributes to an unfavorable prognosis – the chances of metastasis and recurrence increase, accompanied by pain. Pain during oncology exacerbates the prognosis and the animals’ quality of life. Hence, the oncology of animals must be based on the adoption of effective analgesic protocols to ensure quality of life and to prioritize the well-being of patients.
In veterinary medicine, opiates are the drugs of choice for treating pain in young animals, due to their ease of availability, high efficacy, and reversibility of their effects. However, studies of modified cannabinoids indicate that its analgesic efficacy is two hundred to six thousand times higher than that of morphine, for example. Besides, opioids are associated with adverse effects such as sedation, loss of appetite, nausea and respiratory depression.
Also, in veterinary medicine, it is necessary to broaden the scope of research on the effectiveness of cannabis. Still authors such as Carmela Valastro et al. Reporting of the use of artificial agonists to treat dogs with joint disease.
We miss opportunities to explore research opportunities to scientifically produce a new drug. Many drugs for human use were developed for the first time in veterinary medicine – animal research is an essential step in the medical research cycle.
Hemp and cannabinoid-based drugs are already being marketed for human therapy. In veterinary medicine, the products available are limited to cannabinoid based treatments and are considered to be mere nutritional supplements without medicinal purposes. This scenario occurs due to a lack of studies, reduced practicability, as well as legal issues, and social stigma.
Several veterinarians have directed animal owners who have benefited from the use of cannabis-containing drugs toward using them on their pets; However, there is no law that prohibits, permits, or regulates this practice. Depending on the country, it is considered Outlaw.
Wania CRB Paranaiba is a veterinarian who specializes in general surgery and anesthesia. Professor at Anhanguera University.
Adriano C. Paranaiba is the Under Secretary of the Ministry of Competitiveness and Organizational Improvement in the Brazilian Ministry of Economy. Economist, MA in Agricultural Trade and PhD in Transportation. Professor and Researcher in Economics at the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology, Goia (IFG). Editor in Chief MISES: An interdisciplinary journal of philosophy, law, and economics.